What Are the Different Classifications of Enzyme Preparations?
Ⅰ. Enzyme preparations are classified by product
There are about 20 kinds of enzyme preparations that have been industrialized, mainly including amylase, protease, lipase and cellulase.
Glucoamylase is mainly used in the chemical and fermentation industries. Amylase in glucoamylase is the most widely used and the most productive variety in enzyme preparations. It ranks first in enzyme preparation products and is widely used in textiles, wine, organic acids, medicine, feed and other industries.
Protease is mainly used in the production of detergents, food and medicine. The elastase in the protease is a broad-spectrum proteolytic enzyme characterized by decomposing insoluble elastin. The hydrolyzable protein includes the special protein elastin and cellulose on the elastic fiber. Hemoglobin, which promotes the metabolism of neutral fat and lipoprotein, has developed rapidly in recent years.
Lipase is one of the most important biological catalysts. It has the extraordinary ability to carry out a variety of chemical selectivity, regioselectivity and enantioselective conversion, and can catalyze ester synthesis, transesterification, ester polymerization, peptides synthesis and amide synthesis, etc. Lipase has become the most widely used type of enzyme in biotechnology and organic synthesis due to its advantages of wide sources, many catalytic functions and wide catalytic substrates.
Cellulase is an important enzyme product newly developed in recent years. It is a composite enzyme, mainly composed of exo-β-glucanase, endo-β-glucanase and β-glucosidase. It has huge market potential in the fields of fuel, feed, ethanol, textile and food.
Ⅱ. Enzyme preparations are classified by application
The main enzyme preparation products include enzymes for industrial use and special enzymes.
Enzymes for industrial use include: enzymes used in food and beverages, enzymes for washing, enzymes for ethanol production, enzymes for feed, etc.
1. Food and beverage enzymes: mainly amylase, glucoamylase, protease, glucose oxidase and lactase, etc.
2. Enzymes for washing: mainly acid protease, neutral protease, alkaline protease, etc.
3. Enzymes for ethanol production: mainly cellulase, amylase, glucoamylase, etc.
4. Feed enzymes: mainly include phytase, protease, amylase, lipase and feed compound enzymes.
5. Special enzymes mainly include: pharmaceutical enzymes, biological research enzymes, diagnostic enzymes, biocatalysts, etc.
The food industry is a big user of enzymes, and it has been widely used in baking, fruit and vegetable processing, dairy products, meat processing and protein hydrolysis industries.
At present, the variety of enzyme preparations is far from meeting the needs of the food industry. The enzyme preparation industry is constantly introducing new enzyme preparations, compound enzyme preparations, high-activity and high-purity special enzyme preparations to meet the growing needs of the food industry.