Four Major Functions of Enzymes in Feed
1. Enzyme preparations improve production performance
The main function of enzymes in feed is to increase the proportion of digestible nutrients in the feed and improve the utilization of the feed. Animal feed is mainly divided into two categories - grains and meal. Plant cell walls impact the digestion and absorption of nutrients. What's more, the enzymes secreted naturally by pigs and poultry cannot decompose the cell wall, so it can only be degraded by adding the corresponding enzymes in the feed. Cereals such as corn and barley, and agricultural by-products such as gluten and cake, by adding cellulase, hemicellulase and pectinase to them, the cell wall can be destroyed with synergistic effect of those enzymes. In this way, the cell wall is softened, and animals can digest both the cell wall and the contents in the cell. Thereby, the utilization of feed is promoted.
2. Enzyme preparations eliminate anti-nutritional factors and promote animal growth
Anti-nutritional factors,as the name suggests, have anti-nutritional effects. Different feed ingredients contain different anti-nutritional factors. The ways of anti-nutritional effects include:First, anti-nutritional factors combine with nutrients in the gastrointestinal tract of livestock and poultry to produce complexes, thereby deterring the absorption of nutrients; second, anti-nutritional factors directly inhibit the activity of endogenous enzymes which help promote the digestion and absorption of nutrients. When the hemicellulose and pectin in the feed dissolve in water, they will produce a viscous solution, for which the viscosity of the contents of the digestive tract is intensified. Therefore, the time for the feed to pass through the intestine will be shortened as nutrients and endogenous enzymes are difficult to diffuse. As a result, the Digestion and absorption of animals will be affected. Under the synergistic action of enzyme preparation, cellulose, pectin and glycoproteins can be degraded into monosaccharides and oligosaccharides, to reduce the viscosity of intestinal contents, decrease the obstacles of such substances to digestion and utilization.
3. Enzyme preparations can broaden feed sources
The annual output of crop straw in the world is about 2-3 billion tons. China is a major agricultural country with abundant crop straw resources. About 65%-80% of the dry matter in the crop straw can provide energy for animals, but less than 10% is currently utilized as feed, and most of the crop straw is still directly returned to the field or use as fuel, which is not only a waste of resources but also pollutes the environment. Despite a few herbivorous livestock like cattle can digest the cellulose in the straw, others cannot use this part of the energy. In addition, cellulose will impact the digestion of other nutrients, thereby reducing the nutritional value of the feed. Enzyme preparation is a general term for a class of enzymes that decompose cellulose. Its main function is to degrade NSP in the digestive tract of livestock and poultry, reduce the viscosity of intestinal contents, promote the absorption of nutrients, and reduce diarrhea in livestock and poultry, thereby promoting the utilization of the feed and the growth of livestock and poultry.
4. Enzyme preparations improve the growth vitality of animal cubs
In recent years, due to the low survival rate and slow growth rate of home farming, the number of family-style farming has gradually decreased. At the same time, we encounters great difficulties when promoting the enterprise plus farmer-style production. The application of enzyme preparations in feed can transform the phenomena of poultry's digestion and immune organ dysplasia caused by NSP, regulate the level of blood metabolic hormones, and ultimately improve the production performance and survival rate of poultry. The addition of xylanase to the wheat basal diet can increase the relative weights of the spleen, thymus and bursa of the broilers and decreased the mortality rate by 60%.